The process of shared decision-making in which all stakeholders constructively explore their differences and develop a joint strategy for action. It is based on the premise that, through dialogue, the provision of appropriate information, collectively defined goals, and the willingness and commitment to find a solution acceptable to all parties, it is possible to overcome the initially limited perspectives of what is achievable and to reach a decision which best meets the interests of the various stakeholders. At this level, responsibility for decision-making is shared between stakeholders.

(Source: based on information from Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT). 2002. Stakeholder Engagement, Integrated Environmental Management. DEAT Information Series 3.